All organic chain is carved by hand. In the case of the chains made of wood, they are absolutely seamless; carved from a single long slab of wood (see link). Chains made from bone, horn and coral are modeled and constructed into chain links.
Brass substrate is electroplated with 18k gold and then dipped into acid to create the subtly destroyed surface. The concentration of the plating solution, air temperature and time in the acid bath all play integral roles in the final result and exist in a delicate balance. No two items are the same and these nuances / variations should be seen as a characteristic of the product.